Please refer to Block Cipher Modes of Operation.
If you are used to working in languages like Jave or libraries like OpenSSL, then you might want to visit the Init-Update-Final wiki page. Crypto++ provides the transformation model, but its not obvious because its often shrouded behind Pipelines.
Note: if your project is using encryption alone to secure your data, encryption alone is usually not enough. Please take a moment to read Authenticated Encryption and consider using an algorithm or mode like CCM, GCM, EAX or ChaCha20Poly1305.